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GRE閱讀速度慢改如何解決

http://www.280531.tw 發布日期:2009-12-21

  考生比較普遍的弱點我進行過一個小結,主要集中在以下兩個方面:做題速度慢;原文讀過什么也記不住,讀了后面忘前面。我想在這里就針對這兩個最常見的問題,提出一些建議。

  重點練習與分析

  重點練習我認為是應該在熟悉做閱讀的整套方法之后的強化訓練,要求考生大量做題,在做題中進一步體會這些方法的運用。做練習最好能有所針對,就自己的弱點、問題而練習、分析,消除弱點是最好的提高辦法。

  1.做題速度慢"的解決方案

  多數考生做題速度慢的原因都是一樣的,就是花在讀原文上的時間太長了。GRE閱讀的原文通常又長又難,如果要讀懂原文然后憑借印象來做題是需要考生有非常深厚的英文功底的,而這種功底我們絕大多數考生都不具備,所以我們只能用考完題干再定位回原文讀懂某個具體的句子來做題。

  那么,我們在遇到一篇新的閱讀時先讀一遍原文是要達到什么目的呢?

  1)做對主旨題和作者態度題;2)關注、標記一些常考考點為定位所用。

  故讀原文后能達到這兩個要求就足夠了,如果除達到這兩個要求之外又多讀了句子,或在某些句子、某些詞上多逗留了時間,都是致使做題速度慢花的無用功。

  我們在這里先給出一些可以略讀的固定內容,大家不妨花一點時間記一下這些非常不重要的東西,以便今后不用在它們上面浪費更多時間。

  I 已知大意的具體敘述可以略讀,重復、進一步的解釋、反之亦然的敘述部分可以略讀。

  II 目的已知,具體內容可以略讀,就是知道了敘述目的,可以略讀其內容。

  III 作者將要或者已經摒棄的論據、論證可以略讀,這樣的觀點一般都是為后面作者支持的觀點做鋪墊。

  VI一句話的重心如果在后面,前面的可以略讀。

  2.讀完原文沒有任何印象"的解決方案

  我的觀點是,記不住還有一個原因就是想記住的太多了,每句話都一樣的去讀,一樣的去記,其結果就是都沒記住,都和沒讀似的。不妨試著先只挑自己覺得最重要的話來記,比如TS(Topic Sentence),每段首句、一些重要考點……其余的沒有余力先放過去,體會一下記住這些句子對做題和定位是不是比以前全文都努力記效果要好一點。下一步就是反過來推,根據你做過的題目來推原文應該記住什么,或者什么你記住了但是沒用,經常小結一下需要記的東西,其實GRE閱讀應該記憶和值得記憶的東西非常有規律,很好總結的。長此以往,就可以形成讀原文和記憶的重點了。一個很簡單的道理,你有10分力,如果花到10個點上,每個只有1分,如果只花到3 個點上,每個都能有3.333333的力,自然對這3個點理解更深,記憶更清晰,把握的更好了。

  最后,我想推薦一些文章,讀者可以試著快速的讀并分析一下這些文章,看看他們什么地方值得關注,什么地方應該略讀,詳略得當讀原文需要不斷的練習和總結,方能達到爐火純青的境界:92年2月 GRE考試題section6長,GRE No.8第三套section5短,GRE No.6第三套section2長,1994年10月GRE考試題section6短。如果讀者還想了解這些文章的分析,請參閱《GRE閱讀全攻略同步練習》練習9、10。

  有針對的大量練習

  GRE閱讀需要考生具備的基本技能有:一定的詞匯量,對句子基本的理解,熟悉考點和題型,智能讀原文,選答案有方法、有技巧……這些技能都需要讀者在大量的練習和總結中逐漸培養,下面就針對性練習給出我個人的一點建議。

  1.分階段逐一解決問題

  1)解決閱讀詞匯問題

  2)了解長難句

  3)熟悉文章結構的判斷

  4)對固定考點及題型進行強化記憶

  5)了解并熟練快速定位與原文改寫的原則

  2.卡時間強化練習

  3. 考前分析、總結,集中解決弱點

  考前的分析和總結是必須要進行的一個訓練,之所以要進行這個訓練,一方面是在考前客觀的了解一下自己的實力,另一方面就是這種訓練能夠幫助考生發現自己的弱點,在考前進行必要的彌補。筆者想借此機會給大家做個文章分析示范,希望對各位有所啟發:

  例文 筆記欄

  In large part as a consequence of the feminist move-ment, historians have focused a great deal of attentionin recent years on determining more accurately the statusof women in various periods. Although much has been(5) accomplished for the modern period, premodern cultureshave proved more difficult: sources are restricted innumber, fragmentary, difficult to interpret, andoften contradictory. Thus it is not particularly surprisingthat some earlier scholarship concerning such cultures(10) has so far gone unchallenged. An example is JohannBachofen's 1861 treatise on Amazons, women-ruledsocieties of questionable existence contemporary withancient Greece.Starting from the premise that mythology and legend(15) preserve at least a nucleus of historical fact, Bachofenargued that women were dominant in many ancient soci-eties. His work was based on a comprehensive survey ofreferences in the ancient sources to Amazonian andother societies with matrilineal customs-societies in(20) which descent and property rights are traced through thefemale line. Some support for his theory can be found inevidence such as that drawn from Herofotus, the Greek"historian" of the fifth century B. C.,who speaks of anmazonian society, the Sauromatae, where the women(25) hunted and fought in wars. A woman in this society wasnot allowed to marry until she had killed a person inbattle.Nonetheless, this assumption that the first recorders of ancient myths have preserved facts is problematic. If one(30) begins by examining why ancients refer to Amazons, itbecomes clear that ancient Greek descriptions of suchsocieties were meant not so much to represent observedhistorical fact-real Amazonian societies-but rather tooffer "moral lessons" on the supposed outcome of(35) women's rule in their own society. The Amazons, wereoften characterized, for example, as the equivalents ofgiants and centaurs, enemies to be slain by Greek heroes.Their customs were presented not as those of a respect-able society, but as the very antitheses of ordinary Greek(40) practices.Thus, I would argue, the purpose of accounts of theAmazons for their male Greek recorders was didactic, toteach both male and female Greeks that all-femalegroups, formed by withdrawal from traditional society,(45) are destructive and dangerous. Myths about the Ama-zons were used as arguments for the male-dominatedstatus quo, in which groups composed exclusively ofeither sex were not permitted to segregate themselvespermanently from society. Bachofen was thus misled in(50) his reliance on myths for information about the status ofwomen. The sources that will probably tell contempo-rary historians most about women in the ancient worldare such social documents as grave-stones, wills, andmarriage contracts. Studies of such documents have(55) already begun to show how mistaken we are when wetry to derive our picture of the ancient world exclusivelyfrom literary sources, especially myths. L6-7 L(列舉考點)L10 J B(Am)(觀點已知,具體例子略讀,紀錄大寫名詞);L15 SE(Structural Elements)(B提出的觀點)L22 H(記錄專有名詞)L23 5 c(紀錄特殊年代)L24 Sa(記錄專有名詞)L28 SE(段首轉折,否定上文觀點)L41 SE(作者觀點,purpose of強驅動短語,值得關注)L49 B-(misled反映作者對B持負態度,否定了B的結論)

  文章結構分析:

  第一遍快速讀原文,讀者首先應該對原文的結構有個大致的把握。這篇文章的結構分析如下:

  首段,介紹了一個文化背景。在首段末尾,主人公J B登場;

  第2段,先闡述了B的觀點(women were dominant in many ancient societies)及作者提出此觀點所依據的前提(mythology and legend reserve fact),后用evidence證明之;

  第3段,首句Nonetheless為一個強轉折詞,從前提上否定了B。

  第4段,作者提出自己的看法,并從觀點上直接否定了B。全文末句,重申對B觀點前提的否定。

  全文結構組成為:除首段背景外,其余部分為"新觀點推翻舊觀點"型文章,重在"推翻",即對B觀點的駁斥。

  重點題目分析:

  21.The primary purpose of the passage is to

  (A) compare competing new approaches to understanding the role of women in ancient societies.

  (B) investigate the ramifications of Bachofen's theory about the dominance of women in ancient societies.

  (C) explain the burgeoning interest among historians in determining the actual status of women in various societies.

  (D) analyze the nature of Amazonian society and uncover similarities between it and the Greek world.

  (E) criticize the value of ancient myths in determining the status of women in ancient societies .

  此題為主旨題,對選項先豎看,后橫看,豎看主要比較各個選項的主動詞。compare, investigate, explain, analyze均與原文結構不甚符合,只有選項E的criticize(to find fault with)比較符合原文意圖,因此只看E選項的后半部分就可以了,其余選項不用細看。在選項E中,ancient myths是B觀點的前提,the status of women in ancient societies是B的主要觀點,選項E正確。

  22. All of the following are stated by the author as problems connected with the sources for knowledge of premodern cultures EXCEPT

  (A) partial completeness.

  (B) restricted accessibility.

  (C) difficulty of interpretation.

  (D) limited quantity.

  (E) tendency toward contradiction.

  此題為Except題,看到Except,讀者應當首先找原文中的列舉標記,L6-7 L。定位后,將原文sources are restricted in number, fragmentary, difficult to interpret, and often contradictory與各個選項相比較,restricted in number對應limited quantity,fragmentary對應partial completeness,difficult to interpret對應difficulty of interpretation,contradictory對應tendency toward contradiction,故B為正確答案。

  25. It can be inferred from the passage that the probable reactions of many males in ancient Greece to the idea of a society ruled by women could best characterized as

  (A) confused and dismayed.

  (B) wary and hostile.

  (C) cynical and disinterested.

  (D) curious but fearful.

  (E) excited but anxious.

  此題是態度題,問的是males in Greece對a society ruled by women的態度,此考點正在原文所做標記之列,L45-(原文負態度標記)。原文L45的負態度持有者是male Greek recorders,和題干所問是同一群人。在原文中,males in Greece把那些脫離傳統社會的女性群體看作是destructive and dangerous(具有破壞性且危險的)。選項D,選項E應該首先被排除,因為but是反映復雜態度的特征詞,選項A的confused and dismayed(困惑且沮喪),選項C中的disinterested(漠不關心)均和原文所述不符,故選項B的wary and hostile(警覺且帶有敵意)為正確答案。

  26. The author suggests that the main reason for the persisting influence of Bachofen's work is that

  (A) feminists have shown little interest in ancient societies.

  (B) Bachofen's knowledge of Amazonian culture is unparalleled.

  (C) reliable information about the ancient world is difficult to acquire.

  (D) ancient societies show the best evidence of women in positions of power.

  (E) historians have been primarily interested in the modern period.

  我們講過,對大寫名詞的提問,在沒有明顯線索的情況下,常定位于它首次出現處。在文章首段末,Bachofen第一次作為一個例子出現,這個例子所支持的觀點就是:由于資料來源的困難和復雜,古代文化的早期學術研究從未被顛覆。選項C正是Bachofen具有持續影響力的原因的表述,故為正確答案。

  總結:1)21,25題均考到了文章中字里行間體現出的態度,故對原文中作者的態度、作者描述人物的態度的把握至關重要,態度詞是必然考點。

  2)26 題考到了原文的例子,但是定位都是依據例子所要證明的觀點,而非例子本身的內容,故在第一遍讀原文的時候,關于例子,只要目的已知,內容可以略讀。在定位之后,再讀例子也不晚。而有很多時候,作者對例子內容并不涉及,比如這個26題,就是針對例子所支持的觀點提問的,這種情形下,如果第一遍讀原文詳讀了例子,就等于無謂的浪費了時間。

  3)22題對列舉內容的考查可以依靠對原文所標記來判斷正誤,因此,做標記是選擇的得力助手,一定不能省略。

  如果讀者能夠按照上述步驟有針對的訓練,強化要點并有效的總結分析,相信練習不再會是盲目無效的,提高也指日可待。

  來源:加成顧問

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